Three hypotheses for the observed effectiveness of academic ESL for preparing students for academic work in English:
- Academic ESL is perfectly effective at developing interlanguage, but academic ESL classes finish before the end of interlanguage development because students cease being ESL students and matricutate into regular degree programs. Students would still benefit from academic ESL after this point, but rarely have time due to their undergraduate or graduate class schedules. Some stunting occurs in students’ interlanguage because of the premature end of their ESL courses.
- Academic ESL is partially effective at developing interlanguage, and academic ESL classes finish at the end of their period of effectiveness. Students would not benefit from more academic ESL after this point because interlanguage development cannot occur through further academic ESL classes. Students are more likely to have student interlanguage development because of excessive time spent in ESL than a premature start to their degree programs.
- Academic ESL is partially effective at developing interlanguage but mainly effective at introducing compensatory strategies for students to use to make up for their lower language skills. Some of these strategies are specific to language learners and others are of use to any college student, but former ESL students in degree programs succeed by using them more than other students. Interlanguage development is less predictive of academic success than application of compensatory strategies.
Earlier this semester, we requested some data from our campus researcher, and he just got back to us. I won’t say what exactly he told us, but it pertained to average GPAs among different populations of undegrads, and it was good news for the apparent effectiveness of our IEP.
That said, we don’t know why our IEP appears to be effective. It is possible that we are getting better at our jobs. It is also possible that we are just recruiting better students. It’s possible that our students are far better than average, but we’re doing a worse-than-average job preparing them for college, resulting in performance that converges on the mean. Assuming that the work we do in class is at least part of the reason, it might help us to better focus our efforts in order to improve even more if we knew what part of what we do in class helps our students the most.
(For most of my career, I was used to the idea that interlanguage development started when students joined my class and stopped when they quit. In EFL, you can’t count much on outside factors to keep the interlanguage development ball rolling – students aren’t part of formal or informal organizations that facilitate regular English use and their identities accommodate English as a hobby at most. I tried as the owner of an eikaiwa to get students to start pastimes that included English, only to realize that as an eikaiwa teacher, I was the pastime. In short, I was used to thinking of English class as a self-contained unit; anything I wanted my students to do with English we had to do together.
I realized partway through my first year teaching community college ESL in California that we were by design only giving our students a partial education. We wanted to send them off into English 100 with maybe a bit of a head start and without a lot of baggage, but we expected English 100 to continue the work of interlanguage development. I’m sure some of us thought that ESL would still benefit our students, but they had to get on with their credit-bearing classes eventually, and some of us probably thought that ESL was inherently limited in what it could accomplish. There are also those who think that the one and only way that a student will come to understand adjective clauses is if the teacher explains adjective clauses and have never heard of interlanguage.)
Anyway, this would make a good long-term study project: find a decent sample of former academic ESL students in their undergrad years, give them the TOEFL or IELTS (which they wouldn’t have taken in a few semesters at least), survey them on their “compensatory strategies” (defining those would be a lot of work), and measure those against their undergraduate GPAs.
By the way, I’ve started recording some old blog posts as vlogs, seeing how different people tend to read ELT blogs and watch ELT-related content on YouTube. Feel free to stop by and leave a comment about how I don’t look like you expected.